Saturday, February 22, 2020
Summer school Personal Statement - Essay Example When I studied in junior classes, I understood that I love photography. But I did not have a camera. I just watched nice pixes and admired their beauty. Fortunately, now I have a camera, so in free time I can do what I really like. Thanks to my hobby, I met new interesting people and even found good friends. Communicability is one of my positive qualities. Also, I consider myself as responsible and serious person. At school teachers and classmates always can count on my help. I hope that these qualities will help me to become a businessman. In addition to this, to implement such goal I need to improve my leadership qualities. Furthermore, I like writing. When something catches my attention, I want to incarnate it not only in the form of the photographs. I want to write on the paper what I see and feel, and it is great to show the emotions in this way. I try to dream up, because I want my poems and stories are more interesting and exciting. The first acquaintance with your courses began from collecting particular information about it. I can say that on your courses I will be easy to get knowledge. I am sure my teachers will be real professionals. Moreover, I will be able to study with people, who will have similar interests with me. So we will discuss the different details and share our knowledge. Thus, I want to attend the Summer Challenge program to improve my skills. I am sure that they will make me more confident person, who preparing for a new phase of the life after graduation. No doubt, this year is really hard for me. I will have to pass exams and go to university. Before entering I must completely be confident in my knowledge. In conclusion, I would like to say that if I attend your courses, I promise to be a worthy member of the team. I do not want to miss the chance to help myself. Ill try to be positively adjusted and strong. My efforts will not be in vain. I will be available for interview at any time after a graduation my school. Also, I will
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Dekalog movie review - Essay Example A melancholic tone is used in all except the final film. The series illustrates a modern equivalent of scenes from the past artwork on the Ten Commandments. The producer was inspired by the philosophical challenge and needed to use this series to represent the hardships that were encountered in the Polish society while deliberately eliminating the issues on politics. Creative and unusual themes like adultery and stealing have been brought forward in various narrative styles ranging from a somber tragedy to pure black comedy. The producer renders a great service to the society by showing the relevance of these ancient procedures or rules and imperatives to the current modern living. In the Decalogue I, the meaning of the first commandment; I am the Lord thy God, thou shall have no other gods before me is well dramatized. Three characters are brought forward. First is the father who thinks that religion is not important and has put his faith in technology and reason. Second is Pawel, who wonders about things in life and third is Irena, a Christian who desires her nephew to know about the spiritual realm. In this case the meaning of this commandment is brought out to show our current identity by identifying with the three characters. Despite being tempted to be faithless, God portrays himself in the midst of our lives and challenges us to trust in him ( Carr, pg. 81). Yes. The story and the first commandment are connected and this is relevant in that they bring out how much people have failed o acknowledge the existence of God but rather chose to worship other Gods in the current modern society. It is relevant today because the true worship has been neglected and people are engaged in material things and have outgrown
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Analysis Of Internet Banking The definition of Internet banking varies in many ways. Basically, Internet Banking can be understood as the new means to provide information related to banks and their services via an online homepage (Mahmood and Steve, 2009; Ongkasuwan and Tantichattanon, 2002). Daniel (1999), Arunachalam Sivasubramanian (2007) also defines Internet Banking as the delivery of banks information and services to customers via different delivery platforms, such as computer or mobile phone. Via the Internet using PC or mobile phone and web-browser, a banks customers can request information and carry out most banking services (Daniel, 1999; Mols, 1998; Sathye, 1999). Ongkasuwan and Tantichattanon (2002) defined Internet banking service as banking service that allows customers to access and perform financial transactions on their bank accounts from their computers with Internet connection. Some researchers defined Internet Banking based on which services it offers to customers. Internet Banking is delivery channel of banking services which allows both private and corporate customers to use different banking transactions such as new account opening, payment, loan application and approval, cash management, etc. (Pikkarainen, Karjaluoto, and Pahnila, 2004). Internet Banking is also an electronic connection between the bank and the customer with the aim of preparing, managing and controlling financial transactions for both parties (Burr, 1996). Pikkarainen et al (2004) define internet banking as an internet portal, through which customers can use different kinds of banking services ranging from bill payment to making investments. With the click of a mouse, Internet Banking can help banking customers to access to almost any type of banking transaction (De Young, 2001). Other researchers define Internet Banking based on its benefits brings to banks. Pikkarainen et al, (2004) considered Internet Banking as one of the cheapest delivery channels for banking products. Despite high starting-up costs of Internet Banking channel, Internet Banking still can become profitable when achieving a critical mass (Mahmood and Steve, 2009). Additionally, the use of the internet is seen as a new alternative channel for the distribution of financial services which offer competitive advantage (FlaviÃ ¡n et al, 2004; Gan and Clemes, 2006). Because the needs of todays customers are more sophisticated and demanding in the banking industry, branches alone are no longer sufficient (Mahmood and Steve, 2009). Internet Banking has provided an alternative means to acquire banking services more conveniently and become ideal for banks to meet customers expectations. Thanks to Internet Banking, banks can use information and communication technology to provide services and manage customer relationship more quickly and most satisfactorily (Charity-Commission, 2003). Internet Banking has become the main means for banks to market and sell their products and services help banks stay profitable and successful (Amato-McCoy, 2005). This electronic distribution of services offers various benefits which will be discussed in the next section. Additionally, the main characteristic of Internet Banking is that Internet Banking brings the differences between traditional, physical market place and the virtual one (Rayport and Sviokla, 1994). Customers conduct banking transactions using online electronic channel instead of bank branches. Without visiting a brick and- mortar institution, through Internet Banking, a customer may perform banking transactions electronically (Al-Abed, 2003). In conclusion, for the purpose of this research, the researcher defines electronic banking as the new delivery of banking services and products through the use of electronic means such as mobile phones, or computers which connected to Internet in all the time and in all places. Such products and services can include deposit-taking, lending, account management, the provision of financial advice, electronic bill payment, and the provision of other electronic payment products and services such as electronic money. 2.1.2 Internet Banking Advantages and Disadvantages 126.96.36.199 Internet Banking Advantages 188.8.131.52.1 Customers Convenience Customers enjoy the conveniences of internet banking services since Internet Banking makes banking transactions faster, easier and more efficient. Convenience has been identified by a number of studies as an important adoption factor (ACNielsen, 2005; Pew, 2003; Ramsay and Smith, 1999; Thornton and White, 2001). For customers, the benefits are more choice; greater competition and better value for money; more information; better tools to manage and compare information; and faster service (Sergeant, 2000). With the provision of Internet Banking services, customers can possess convenience in terms of 24/7 access (Pew, 2003). Traditionally, visiting a physical branch is the only way for customers to do banking transactions which require security and privacy. Without Internet Banking, bank transactions are only implemented within office hours. On the other hand, banks which offer Internet Banking are open for business every time and every place with Internet connection. Therefore, Internet Banking users are able to save time and transportation expenses, waiting time as well. When accessing the Internet connection, via phones or computers, customers can do banking transactions without any efforts. Internet Banking enables users to have mobility since transactions can be performed in any time and at any place. Customers are increasingly mobile and demand for flexible services, as a result, they prefer quick delivery of products and services. Additionally, Internet Banking also provides paper free, complete and up-to-date transactions (Wright and Ralston, 2002). Internet Banking users are easy to know all details of their current and past financial data and banking transactions. Any inquiry or transaction is processed online without any reference to the physical branch at any time. Instead of filling out application form and sign many papers, or use ID card for security, consumers just log in their account and type account password, they get the accurate and updated financial data. Real-time account balances and information are available. For example, customers always update the information about interest rates and money-spending options. Compared with traditional over-the-counter banking, Internet Banking quality is not influenced by personal contact between customers and banks (Lu Nancy Zheng, 2010). Banking transactions with the provision of Internet Banking can be automated. When banks do not offer Internet Banking, any banking transactions need the involvement of bank employees. Although human communication plays an important role in marketing, this can be considered as a double-edged sword. The quality of services depends on attitudes of bank employee. Moreover, Internet Banking benefits banks for minimizing the likelihood of committing errors by bank tellers (Jayawardhena and Foley, 2000). To some extent, not offering face-to-face contact can be seen as one of the advantages of Internet Banking. 184.108.40.206.2 Increased Profits Firstly, Internet Banking helps improved profits by lowering operation costs. Expanding geographically by opening new branches requires high starting-up cost and maintenance costs. With the help of Internet Banking, banking transactions do not require a physical presence. As a result, Internet Banking enhances reduction of overhead costs of physical channels, which require expensive buildings and a staff presence. Additionally, all banking transaction of Internet Banking is largely automatic which enables banks to reduce the workload of branch staff. Also, Internet Banking helps avoid errors related to data entry and personal communication mistakes. Indeed, banks not only save costs but also easier expand the traditional customer bases. Internet Banking replaces some of traditional bank functions to reduce significant overheads related to bank branches, as a result, Internet Banking is considered as one of the cheapest delivery channels for banking services (Arunachalam and Sivasubra manian, 2007). Moreover, Internet Banking helps banks in cutting cost, improve market share, maintain various E-business services, extend marketing and communication channel, search for new innovation services, and improve cross-selling opportunities (Ongkasuwan and Tantichattanon, 2002). Secondly, another reason why Internet Banking improved economic returns for banks is that Internet Banking allows banks to diversify their value creation activities. While doing transaction banking online, users easily approach with many other cross-selling banking services with details. Selling an additional product or service to an existing customer is called cross-selling. The profits can be gained not only based on current offered services but also other cross-selling activities (Arunachalam and Sivasubramanian, 2007). According to Mahmood and Steve (2009), the higher than average income and education levels are more attracted by Internet Banking is high profit customers. Based on detailed data about customers financial profiles and purchasing behavior, banks which possess detailed understanding of customers create customized advertising, customized products for bank users. By this way, not only current services banks offer but also other services can be sold. Internet Banking pr ovides faster delivery of banking services to a wider range of customers (Oghenerukevbe, 2008). Not only did the number of its online customer grow very quickly, but the new customer base was also very profitable. 220.127.116.11.3 Competitive Advantage The use of Internet Banking can gain competitive advantage to deal with globalization and fiercer competition (FlaviÃ ¡n, Torres, GuinalÃ u, 2004). Firstly, Internet Banking enables banks to achieve competitive advantage since having a large online and physical branch network. Operation cost per Internet Banking transaction is much lower than for other service delivery channels (Shah et al., 2007). Jayawardhena and Foley (2000) reported that the transaction cost for non-cash payment at a branch relative to the internet can be 11 times more than online transaction. By lower operation cost, Internet Banking enables a bank to survive the economic pressures and down-turns. Secondly, Internet Banking helps banks to gain competitive advantage since it is seen as one of those innovative ways to meet customers expectations (Mahmood and Steve, 2009). In this customer-centered business, customers are more demanding for products or services with high-quality, sold at less cost and delivered quickly. Thanks to its characteristics, Internet Banking is one of the best options. Internet Banking helps banking users can access any transactions in all time and everywhere with the lowest costs. Thirdly, Internet Banking is considered as a key in both keeping customers loyal and accessing new markets. Apart from expansion by selling products or services for new customers, maintain existing ones is equally important, especially in current difficult economic situation. There is more and more pressure on banks to diversify their products to create value. Otherwise, banks are likely to drag behind competitors and new entrants in financial sectors lose important current customer segment. For example, Woolwich Bank in the UK, compared with traditional banking customers, Internet Banking customers hold more number of financial products on average (Mahmood and Steve, 2009). 18.104.22.168.4 Enhanced Image Internet Banking helps to enhance the image of the organization since banks is seen as innovative organization offering innovative products. This image also helps banks more effective at e-marketing. Internet Banking enables customers to access internet bank all the time and in all places which means that there is no boundary of spaces and time brings more opportunities to extend their relationship with the customers Robinson (2000). More effective marketing and communication at lower costs will not only improve market image but also prepare banks to have better and quicker response to market evolution (Jayawardhena and Foley, 2000). Offering extra service delivery channels means wider choice and convenience for customers, which itself is an improvement in customer service. Internet Banking can be made available 24 hours a day throughout the year, and a widespread availability of the Internet, even on mobile phones, means that customers can conduct many of their financial tasks virtu ally anywhere and anytime. 22.214.171.124 Internet Banking Disadvantages 126.96.36.199.1 High costs Although Internet Banking saves infrastructure costs for banks as above mention reasons, banks introducing Internet Banking just made little savings (Young, 2007). The reason is that any savings are offset by above average wages and benefits per worker. Internet Banking needs a more skilled labor force to run the more sophisticated delivery system. Moreover, costs related extra security measures need taken into consideration. 188.8.131.52.2 The negative effects on banks and customers relationship The traditional channels of offering banking services strongly focus on personal relationships. It is essential to maintain the human touch in customer services (Avkiran, 1999). Customers might be satisfied with the greeting, politeness, neatness of bank employees, ability to express concern for customers needs, apologize for customers complaints. The way of staff members serving customers are likely to influence customer satisfaction directly. Internet Banking completely changes this aspect of customer and bank relationship since it is fully automated. A traditional bank provides the opportunity to develop a personal relationship with that bank. At a local bank branch, employee can make a conservation to ask their customers demand or help them to solve their problems, consult their financial decisions. It is increasingly personal contact with customers. The banker also will get to know the customer and his unique needs. Meanwhile, Internet Banking just performs common transactions without any face-to-face contacts (Cho et al. 2007). According to Broderick and Vachirapornuk (2003:333), customers do not have interaction with employees in person. 2.1.3 Internet Banking Barriers 184.108.40.206 Accessibility to the Internet Wireless communications enables Internet Banking become more and more accessible. Although the growth of the Internet has been very fast, there is still a large population who do not own computers or mobile phones connect to the Internet. For example, different from developed countries, Internet connectivity is still a problem in some rural areas and several developing countries. Lack of computer literacy is one of the reasons Internet Banking is less developed (Walczuch et al., 2000). 220.127.116.11 Consumer Behavior As above mentioned, convenience is not only a key determinant of consumer satisfaction (Yang et al., 2003) but also one of the dominating factors in transaction channel preferences (Ramsay and Smith, 1999). In the field of Internet Banking, this is one of the most cited beneficial features because it offers more leisure-time when doing banking transaction (Devlin, 1995; Daniel, 1999; Liao and Cheung, 2002). Despite the awareness of Internet Bankings benefit, users are still reluctant to use Internet Banking. It is very common in developing countries to physically transfer money. The minority of customers are willing to use Internet Banking, whereas a large number of consumers of financial services are still uncomfortable to conduct their financial management online. The reason is that the use of new technology depends on the technology acceptance of customers and the consumer habits in each country. 18.104.22.168 Security Issues Security challenges banks to deal with customer fears in perform financial transactions using website as a channel (Aladwani, 2001; Sathye, 1999; Gerrard and Cunningham, 2003). In the first quarter of 2005, 80% of global online attacks towards the financial services sector (IDC, 2005). Customers tend to lack confidence in technology-based services delivery systems (Walker et al., 2002). For example, they are unsure that the transaction was completed or the transaction is delayed or not. Also, they are afraid that slow response time after completing leads to a delay of service delivery. This can result in transaction risk (Westland, 2002). This concerns mainly because of the quality of online services systems. Reputation of the bank also significantly affects customer adoption of new technology-based service delivery (Aladwani, 2001). Interestingly, other researchers found that consumer is very much confident about their bank but they have less confidence in technology (Howcroft et al., 2002). Consumers express their concern that online banking is not likely to keep their information of transaction secure and private (Belanger et al., 2002; Salisbury et al., 2001). Therefore, it is essential for Internet Banking banks provider higher degree of security that enables customers to trust internet banking at all times and places (Daniel, 1999, Black et al, 2001; Polatoglu and Ekin, 2001; Suganthi et al, 2001; Gerrard and Cunningham, 2003). 2.2 Understanding of Customer Satisfaction Both business practitioners and academic researchers pay more and more attention to customer satisfaction (Bolton and Drew, 1991; Christian Bettina, 1999). Jamal and Naser (2003) emphasized the importance of customer satisfaction for marketers and researchers as well when stating that it is an important theoretical and practical issue. Thus, from the past on, customer satisfaction is defined by different studies in different ways which brings a diversity of definitions for customer satisfaction. Firstly, customer satisfaction can be basically defined by using its determinants. Many researcher used expectation and disconfirmation (Kang, Nobuyuki and Herbert, 2004), or expectation and performance (Johnson, Anderson and Fornell, 2001), or quality and disconfirmation (McQuitty, Finn and Wiley, 2000), or expectation and quality (Giese and Cote, 2002) as customer satisfactions determinants to define customer satisfaction. Meanwhile, Prabhakar (2005) found customer satisfactions factors include the price factors, product or services quality, customers expectations. Secondly, customer satisfaction can be defined based on two different conceptualizations, namely Transaction-specific satisfaction and Cumulative-specific satisfaction (Boulding, 1993). Transaction-specific satisfaction is a customers evaluation, based on both experience and reactions, towards a particular service encounter (Cronin and Taylor, 1992; Boshoff and Gray, 2004). Cumulative-specific satisfaction is defined as customers overall evaluation based on total purchase and consumption experience (Johnson, Anderson and Fornell, 1995). While transaction-specific satisfaction provides specific transactional information about specific purchase occasion (Anderson, 1994b), cumulative-specific satisfaction refers to customers experience with past, current, and future performances. Thirdly, customer satisfaction is the gap while comparison between pre-purchased expectation and post purchase (Barsky, 1992; Oh and Parks, 1997; McQuitty, Finn and Wiley, 2000). This conceptualization is called the expectancy disconfirmation theory which developed by Oliver (1980). According to this theory, customers experience satisfaction when product or service is better than expected. Otherwise, if the performance is worse than their expectations, negative disconfirmation or dissatisfaction occurs. Customer satisfaction is a highly personal assessment which consists of not only cognitive element but also emotional element. Customers buy products or services because the benefits products or services offer. Hanan, Mack and Karp, Peter (1989) stated that customers receives significant add-value is satisfied customers. Therefore, customers always expect products possess benefits they need. Apart from other above mention definitions, more definitions of customer satisfaction are presented in following Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1 Customer Satisfaction Definition No. Author Definition 1 Olshavsky Miller (1972) The consequence of the confirmation or positive disconfirmation of expectations, which means that the perceived performance is equal to or better than the expected outcome 2 Churchill and Surprenant (1982) An outcome of purchase and use resulting from the buyers comparison of the rewards and costs of the purchase in relation to the anticipated consequences 3 Woodruff et al. (1983) An emotional feeling in response to confirmation/disconfirmation 4 Peter Olson (1996) The degree to which a consumers pre-purchase expectations are fulfilled or surpassed by a product 5 Oliver (1997) Satisfaction is the consumers fulfillment response. It is a judgment that a product or service feature, or the product or service itself, provided (or is providing a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfillment, including levels of under or over fulfillment 6 Andreassen Lindestad (1998) The accumulated experience of a customers purchase and consumption experiences Definition of customer satisfaction and debates relate to this definition is widely discussed. On the other hand, in this study, customer satisfaction can be simply understood that customer satisfaction is the customer pleasure when products or services meet customers demand. 2.3 The relationship between Customer Satisfaction and its antecedents Due to the importance of customer satisfaction, a variety of research has been done to determine the factors influencing customer satisfaction (Churchill and Surprenant, 1982; Oliver, 1980; Barsky, 1995; Zeithaml and Bitner, 2003). According to Oliver (1980), there are three factors influencing Customer Satisfaction: Service Quality (1), Price (2), Privacy and Security (3). Figure 2.1 Factors influencing Customer Satisfaction 2.3.1 The relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction Concepts of Service Quality The most important component affecting customer satisfaction is Service Quality (Shelly Gandhi et al; Cronin and Taylor, 1992; Oliver, 1993; Spreng and Machoy, 1996). Similarly with customer satisfaction, many academic researchers paid attention to service quality since it is a means of creating competitive advantages and customer loyalty (Dawn et al., 1995). Generally, service quality measures whether services meet customers needs and expectations or not (Lewis and Booms, 1983). Cronin and Taylor (1994) defined service quality as a long-run overall evaluation of products or services whereas Bitner, Booms and Mohr (1994) defined service quality as the overall impression of the organization and its services. Similar to customer satisfaction definition, according to Parasuraman et al. (1985), service quality can be defined as the consumers comparison between pre-purchase service expectation and actual service performance. Since Parasuraman et al. (1985) proposed their conceptual model of perceived service quality, more and more attention has been paid to services quality. On the other hand, the research conducted by Parasuraman et al. (1985) is mostly recognized. Table 2.2 Dimensions of Service Quality Author Dimensions of Service Quality Gronroos 1982 Technical quality Functional quality Corporate image Zeithamls (2002) Efficiency Reliability Fulfillment Privacy Responsiveness Compensation Contact Jun and Cai (2001) Reliability Responsiveness Competence Courtesy Credibility Access Communication Understanding Collaboration Continuous improvement Yang et al. (2004) Reliability Attentiveness Ease of use Access Credibility Garvin (1988) Besterfield (2003) Performance Features Conformance Reliability Durability Service Response Aesthetics Reputation After researching different types of services, such as long-distance telecommunication companies, credit card companies, motor repair shops and banking industry, Parasuraman et al. (1985) stated that there are ten determinants of Service Quality as follows: Reliability: The ability to perform services to customers right the first time and provide reliable and accurate services as promised. Tangibles: Physical evidence of the services (neat appearance of employees, modern equipment and facility). Security: Providing services without any risk or danger. Access: Easy to approach with services and contact with employees for request. Communication: Understanding and listening ability to customers, knowing what customers want to help. Courtesy: Respect customer, being polite and friendly to customers, express the concern related to customers problems. Credibility: Building and achieve honest and trustworthiness towards customers. Understanding: Knowing the customer what is customers needs. Competence: Possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform the service. 10. Responsiveness: The willingness or readiness of employees when interact with customers requests. However, later in 1988, these above mentioned ten dimensions were cut down to fives by Parasuraman et al. (1985): Tangibility: the appearance and availability of physical equipment, appearance of personnel. Reliability: the ability to perform the service promptly with high quality in the dependable and accurate way. Responsiveness: the readiness to help customers. Assurance: includes four elements, such as Competence, courtesy, credibility and security. The ability to communicate with customers in the knowledgeable and understandable way to persuade customers and convey trust and confidence to them. Empathy: includes access, communication, and understanding the customer. The ability to express the concern with customers, pay attention to their needs and problems in a caring and individualized way. The relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction Various academics have studied service quality and customer satisfaction in order to understand customer evaluation (Bitner Hubber, 1993; Boulding, Staelin, Kalra, Zeithaml, 1993; Oliver, 1993; Parasuraman, 1985). In many study researching on customer evaluation, quality and satisfaction are used interchangeably since they both presents the comparison of customer expectiation and actual service performance (Lowis and Boom, 1983; Parasuraman, 1985). On the other hand, there is still difference between two concepts. Customer satisfaction is more specific, short-term evaluation while service quality is more general and long-term evaluations (Dabholkar, 1993 and Gotlieb, Grewal and Brown, 1994). In contrast, according to Wilson et al. (2008), customer satisfaction is more permanent than service quality since it generally is a broader term, some dimensions of customer satisfaction are specifically focused on by service quality. As defined above, customer satisfaction has two definitions as transaction-specific and cumulative-specific customer satisfaction (Boulding, 1993). Regardless of whether customer satisfaction has been defined by transaction-specific or cumulative-specific definitions, service quality is one of the most important antecedents of customer satisfaction (Oliver, 1993; Anderson Sullivan, 1993; Fornell et al., 1996; Spreng Macky, 1996). The higher service quality is, the higher satisfaction is (Parasuraman et al., 1985). From the past on, service quality and customer satisfaction is highly related which proved by many studies with practical examples. For instance, Brady et al., (2001) used SERVQUAL in examine the relationship between customer satisfaction and service quality in fast-food restaurants in America and Latin America. SERVQUAL model includes ten aspects: responsiveness, courtesy, communication, reliability, security, competence, access, understanding the customers, credibility and tangibles. Additionally, LISREL was used to conduct the test the same positive relationship in a health care service in Ruyter et al. (1997). Based on the research conducted by Yang et al. (2004) related to E-Service, the study will focus on five Service Quality Dimensions as follows: Reliability: Accuracy and prompt of transaction performance. Attentiveness: Availability to serve customer, willingness to help customer, pay individualized attention and personal contact to customers. Ease of use: Easy to remember URL address, well-structured web-design, easy-to-follow, update information, concise, simple and understandable contents, terms and conditions. Access: Accessibility of different transaction services, availability of communication channels such as chat rooms or emails, details contact of service personnel. Credibility: The reputation of service providers. Based on the above discussions, the hypothesis (H1) is formulated. H1: Service quality has a significant relationship with customers satisfaction in Internet Banking. 2.3.2 The relationship between Price and Customer Satisfaction Concept of Price Price plays an important role in the survival of the company since it decided the competitiveness and revenue of a company. According to Price Theory, price reflects interaction between supply and demand in the market. In other words, price is determined by what a customer is willing to pay and what a seller is willing to accept. With this agreement, both customers and sellers get mutual benefits because customers take advantage of the product usage while sellers get their economic returns. Similarly with Price Theory, Stanton (1985) defined price as the amount of money or goods needed to acquire some combination of another goods and its companying services. These findings are also consistent with other research findings. For example, Kotler (2002) defined price as the total amount customer needs to exchange in order to obtain a benefit of the products or services price is the amount of money charged for a product or service. In order to achieve marketing objectives, The Marketing Mix is essential for firms and includes four P (Product, Price, Promotion, Place) creating general and specific marketing strategies for the whole company (Kotler, 2002). Price is one of the four P in The Marketing Mix which developed by Philip Kotler. The relationship between Price and Customer Satisfaction There is a clear link between customer satisfaction and price perceptions (Kyriazopoulos, 2007). Numerous studies discussed the relationship between price and customer satisfaction. For example, this relationship is proved through the study conducted in German car dea
Monday, January 20, 2020
Glamorous Lives Changed By Children In the movies Ã¢â¬Å"Raising HelenÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Uptown GirlsÃ¢â¬ , two women find their glamorous lifestyles turned inside out and themselvesÃ¢â¬â¢ in the constant and close company of children who they do not seem at all fit to take care of. Although these women have similar experiences with children and are shaped and changed in similar ways by these experiences, their circumstances are quite different. The two women learn a world completely different from their own through being care takers to children. They each have new responsibilities that come out of this experience and, as a result, are shaped into entirely new people with new values and memories of life. Both women gain experience in responsibility to someone they truly care about. Although their glamorous lifestyles are changed drastically by these responsibilities, both women realize the true happiness and satisfaction they get from doing something and being there for someone other than themselves. As a resu lt, they learn to value selflessness and memories that could never be out done by a life of glamour and money. In Ã¢â¬Å"Raising HelenÃ¢â¬ , Helen Harris in her glamorous, big-city life one day finds herself acquiring custody of her two nieces and one nephew. Her life is turned inside out and she is completely beside herself when trying to figure out what to do. Helen and the kids face many trials and tribulations but soon make a life together that, although is lived one day at a time, works. Helen is shaped into a whole new person and learns now more than ever what it means to be a family. In Ã¢â¬Å"Uptown GirlsÃ¢â¬ , Molly a rock nÃ¢â¬â¢ roll princess has her glamorous and rich life swept out from under her feet when she finds out that her accountant has blown all of her daddyÃ¢â¬â¢s money. She ends up in a job as a Nanny for nine year old Ray who has a mother too busy with her own life to even notice her daughter. Molly and Ray hate each other at first but soon become the best of friends and learn how to accept each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s quirks. Molly is also shaped into a whole other person and learns what it means to have a true best friend. Both women experience a drastic change in their lives. They are hit with new responsibility, a kind of responsibility that, if neglected, would affect another human-being, not just themselves.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
How does the presentation of Iago in Act1 sn1 lines 41-66 and Act1 sn3 lines 365-385 prepare the audience for the tragedy of Othello?
The two passages in question, the first a speech Iago makes at the start of the play, and the second, a short soliloquy at the end of Act one, introduce the audience to the character of Iago and the feelings he has towards Othello which will drive the action of the play and shape the tragedy. In the play, we see Othello, a heroic character, fall from grace. Shakespeare's successful use of peripeteia is accentuated by Othello's strive through adversity and what he has managed to achieve, especially in Venice which was the most powerful society in the world for a time. It was un-heard of for a Ã¢â¬Å"moorÃ¢â¬ to have reached such a momentous position considering the racism at this point in history. Othello is also a character that the audience can empathize with easily. This emphasizes the tragedy of Othello due to the fact that he doesn't deserve to have been plagued by trickery resulting in him murdering Desdemona and then killing himself. He has been entirely manipulated by Iago. He is the artist behind the fall of Othello. He realizes that Othello can be Ã¢â¬Å"tenderly led by the nose as asses areÃ¢â¬ and is clever and ruthless enough to take advantage of him and exploit his flaw, jealousy. Iago's exploitative nature is communicated to the audience when he is talking to Roderigo about how he dislikes the Ã¢â¬Å"MoorÃ¢â¬ and says, Ã¢â¬Å"I follow him to serve my turn upon him. Ã¢â¬ This statement reveals Iago's feelings towards Othello, as well as an insight into the way he thinks and his priorities in life. This suggests that Iago's motive is just to climb to the top of society without regard or respect for anyone else's emotions. An example of this is when Iago is telling Roderigo how he feels about certain types of employees, the types that Ã¢â¬Å"line their coatsÃ¢â¬ . He states that these people have Ã¢â¬Å"soulÃ¢â¬ and believes Ã¢â¬Å"such a one I do profess myself. Ã¢â¬ This shows the audience Iago's selfish and power hungry temperament. It is interesting how Shakespeare has chosen to put a full stop after the word Ã¢â¬Å"myselfÃ¢â¬ . He has chosen not to use enjambment, which he uses abundantly throughout the text. When listening to someone act out this speech, there would be a pause after this word that would let the audience have time to think about the statement just voiced. Iago's desire for status brings to light the theme of class. Iago feels an extremely strong desire to climb to the highest class and profess himself a success. This could be seen as his primary motive for money and power and ultimately status. However, he also wishes to break the bond between Othello and Desdemona. As well as revealing his character to the audience, these two quotations foreshadow and prime the audience for a tragic ending, one in which Iago will turn upon Othello, a noble and trusting character. Iago's motives are often unclear and we end up speculating that he is jealous, racist or insecure. The presentation of Iago in the penultimate sentence of the first speech, invokes images of pain, destruction, darkness and possibly some of the aforementioned insecurity. He voices a sinister yet almost vulnerable statement to Roderigo when he says Ã¢â¬Å"I will wear my heart upon my sleeve/ For daws to peck at. Ã¢â¬ This can be interpreted in many ways. One of which is that Iago feels that he has done so much wrong that he is leaving his feelings open for the people around him to Ã¢â¬Å"peck atÃ¢â¬ with the Ã¢â¬Å"dawsÃ¢â¬ symbolizing the people. This would suggest that Iago does have a heart because he feels punished for how he treats his companions and the net of lies he weaves around them. Moreover, leaving ones heart upon ones sleeve could be seen as an act to open their heart to the world, leaving one vulnerable and defenceless. This metaphorical image of a bird pecking at his heart paints an enduringly dark and depressing picture for the audience. Conversely, we could see this quote as Iago feeling he should be punished. We could also see it as Iago being self destructive and almost psychopathic. The structure chosen here by Shaksespeare suggests that this statement should be read as a sinister one as opposed to a vulnerable one. The writer has chosen to continue this sentence onto the next line. His use of emjambement here suggests that the audience should hear the statement all as one. There is no pause between Ã¢â¬ sleeveÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"for dawsÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬Å". In addition, the fact that Iago doesn't care that he is leaving his feelings so vulnerable makes us think that he has no care for his emotions and anyone else's whatsoever. It is also ironic because he is saying he will reveal his feelings, his emotions and his true self, but succeeds in manipulating all of the characters due to his immense power to lie, deceive and erect an impregnable faiade. Shakespeare alludes to themes such as race and class in the last sentence of the first speech that also portray Iago's deceitful character. Iago ends his speech to Roderigo by saying Ã¢â¬Å"I am not what I am. Ã¢â¬ We have already learned that he is a deceptive and confusing character however this statement means that he could have been putting up a faiade this whole time and none of what he said could be true. As and audience, we feel that Shakespeare has employed this dramatic device to keep us guessing. Moreover, this is interesting because we would usually expect Iago to reveal this about his character in a soliloquy rather than in conversation with another character. Shakespeare has most definitely chosen this short punchy sentence to end his speech for a reason. This is the main thought that the audience are left with. This is a key function in helping the audience to suspend their disbelief. Watching the play you would be confused trying to understand his character and then seconds later the dialogue resumes between Iago and Roderigo. There is also another interesting interpratation of this statement that relates to class and race. At the time, white people considered themselves the higher power compared to black people. White people considered themselves clean and proper and considered black people dirty and improper. However, this is ironic because Othello, the black character or Ã¢â¬Å"MoorÃ¢â¬ is the noble, kind and strong character. And Iago is portrayed as being evil, deceptive and crazy. We could see this as an attempt by Shakespeare to attack the ideals and beliefs of the time by turning them over and challenging them. The end of this passage gives the audience the idea that good will not prevail over evil resulting in a devastating end to the play. The second passage, Iago's soliloquy, starts with him telling the audience that whenever he can, he will take advantage of any Ã¢â¬Å"foolÃ¢â¬ for his profit. This again communicates his exploitative nature and alludes to the idea that eventually Othello will become his Ã¢â¬Å"purseÃ¢â¬ . He then goes on to say Ã¢â¬Å"I hate the Moor,Ã¢â¬ . Once again Shakespeare has used structure to emphasize a certain point. This being that Iago despises Othello. He does this by starting the sentence with Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ and has placed a comma after Ã¢â¬ moorÃ¢â¬ which sections off this declaration causing a pause after hearing which leaves time for this statement to be absorbed by the audience. Iago is portrayed as being sexist in the beginning of his soliloquy when he says that by Othello sleeping with his wife he has Ã¢â¬Å"done his officeÃ¢â¬ . Referring to his wife as Ã¢â¬Å"his officeÃ¢â¬ now would be a potentially life threatening comment, however at the time it was thought that men were above women and a women's place was at home, cooking, cleaning and holding together the home-life. He is referring to Emilia as if he can do with her as he wants. This suggests she is his sex object and reaffirms him as the duplicitous man that he is. Iago's character is portrayed as evil and scheming in the last sentence of his soliloquy. After Iago has been plotting he has conjured up a plan to frame Othello by exploiting his trusting nature. This is communicated when he says Ã¢â¬Å"Hell and night/ Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light. Ã¢â¬ This conjures up images of death, pain and evil beasts. This is a very powerful statement and has the most significance in terms of alluding to the tragic ending of Othello. It is also interesting because Shakespeare has chosen to write this in verse. This adds a poetic and almost beautiful aura to what Iago is saying. It is intriguing yet horrific at the same time. He has also chosen to use figurative speech that makes the audience think more about what is being said. This is typical of Shakespeare's fondness for dramatic irony. He may have been alluding to the overall themes of the play here in this one line. Specifically, the contrasting notions of heaven vs hell, light vs dark and good vs evil. In conclusion, we can see that both speeches play key roles in preparing the audience for the tragedy of Othello. The first speech reveals much about Iago's character including his manipulative and exploitative nature. It is revealed to the audience that Iago is complex and intelligent but that these traits are ominous ones. Iago is portrayed in such a negative way that it leaves the audience thinking that there could only be a negative ending to the play. The assumption is that evil will prevail. However at this point in the play we have not met Othello. We are not sure whether what Imago is saying about Othello is true which means that the audience are ill prepared at this point for the tragedy of Othello. In Iago's soliloquy he begins to engineer his plan to defeat Othello. At this point we have met Othello and we are aware of his trusting nature that becomes his downfall at the end of the play. Shakespeare uses a combination of structural techniques, language and themes to help the audience prepare for the tragedy that follows. I believe that Shakespeare was attempting an attack on the ideals and beliefs in society at the time and was trying to tell the worlds that fairytales do not usually come true and that humans will ultimately be the makers of their own downfall.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Motivation is important because it allows you to work towards and complete your goals. GPA allows you to see, on average, how well a student has performed in all classes they have taken. It is likely there is a relationship between motivation and GPA. If a student is highly motivated, will their GPA rise? Based upon previous research, it is hypothesized that students who are highly motivated will have a GPA of 3.0 or higher. Seventeen university students, 9 male and 8 female participated in the survey. The survey included 9 questions that measured motivation, measured on a Likert scale from 1-5. [Results]. Students may see the results and decide to change their study habits. One application for the real world could beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Extrinsic motivation is working on a task to receive a reward in the end. For students, this reward would be good grades and a high GPA. Non-traditional students had higher levels of intrinsic motivation, meaning they enjoyed what they where doing and were not just motivated by grades and GPA. Non-traditional students are ones that are financially independent and possibly working a full time job. (Author Name) concluded that the students interest in their major lead to the highest levels of motivation. Although this study focused heavily on motivation, it did not focus on actual GPA scores. (Author Name) did a study on motivation for studying engineering, and measured GPA as a dependent variable. Students who showed interest in their academics had lots of success in their subject, which led to higher GPAÃ¢â¬â¢s. (The author) also found that students who took math and physics courses with positive attitudes were more likely to be successful. A student having a positive outlook and showing interest in a subject is likely to be very motivated. This study is relevant because it looks at both students motivation and the resulting GPA. Similar to the study by (Author 2), a study by (Author 3) looked at time use and academic outcomes. Good use of time can be related to motivation, while academic outcomes can be seen as a students GPA. The study found that the number of hours studying wasShow MoreRelatedCorrelation Between Low Gpa And High Gpa Group1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe researchers estimate that higher GPA group will do better in all of these four items, motivation, choices, cognition, and emotions. Even though there are not contradictions between data and our estimation, there are only slight improvements on these four mediators between choices and cognition of high GPA group and low GPA group (see figure 2). In det ails, the motivation of these two groups have the same median (0.64), but the high GPA group are more diverse with a higher standard deviation (0Read MoreThe Relationships Among Academic Attitudes, Psychological Attitudes And The First Semester Academic Achievement Of First Year College Students1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesArticle Title: Reynolds, A. L., Weigand, M. J. (2010). The relationships among academic attitudes, psychological attitudes, and the first-semester academic achievement of first-year college students. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 47(2), 175-195. 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